高中英语知识点总结(一)

发布时间:2018-05-16 12:10





[1.定语从句在什么情况下用 whose 引导]

whose 用于代替"表示人或物意义"的先行词,在从句中作定语,

往往与它所修饰的名词一起构成一个名词短语在从句中担当成分。

Whose 常表达"某人的、某物的"之意。

例如:

Do you know the name of that girl whosebrother is your roommate ?

你知道她的哥哥与你同寝室的那位女孩的名字吗?

Water whose boiling point is at 100 degreeCentigrade has no color, no flavor.

沸点在摄氏 100 度的水无色、无味。

 

[2.定语从句引导词 that  which 的区别]

定语从句中的 8 种情况,只能用 that 引导

1.在从句中为了避免与疑问词 who 重复时

2.从句修饰词被 the one 修饰时

3.从句修饰词被含有人和物的名词时

4.从举所修饰词被 everything, anything, something 等不定代词修饰时

5.从句所修饰词被 all , more, any 等不定代词修饰时

6.从句所修饰的词又被 the only , the very(强调语气)the last, the same 

饰时

7.从句修饰的词又被叙述词修饰时

8.修饰的词被形容词最高级修饰时

 

[3. Turn 的几个短语]

turn down 不接受,...调小

turn into sth. 转变

turn off 关闭使...停止

turn on 打开,...开始

turn out 终于成为...

turn out a light 关灯

turn over ...翻转

turn up 到达

以上的 turn 均为动词词性

in turn 逐个的

take turn at sth.=take it in turns to dosth.逐个做某事

turing 转弯口

以上的 turn 为名词词性

 

[4.几个道路的区别]

way 范指一切的路

path 人或动物踩踏而成的小径

street 两旁有建筑的

road 供车辆行驶的

highway 公路

 

[5.几个旅游的区别]

journey 指有明确方向的,长途的,陆路的旅行,通常比较辛苦.

travel 范指旅行

voyage 多指海路或空间的长途旅行

trip 短距离的.又回到出发地的.

tour 巡游

 

[6.bed 的用法]

n.[C]

be in bed 是卧床睡觉

The children are in bed.孩子们都在床上呢

in the bed 是自作自受的意思

可以与 lie on thebed 转换

vt.

1. ...提供床铺(或宿处)[(+down)]

2. ...安置在(某种基础上),...嵌入[O]

The bullet bedded itself in the wall.

这颗子弹嵌进了墙内。

3. ...栽于苗床(或花坛)[(+out)]

They bedded the plants in good soil.

他们将这些秧苗栽在沃土中。

vi.

1. ,[(+down)]

I'll bed down on the sofa.

我就睡在沙发上。

 

[7.备注:句中避免重复的代词用法]

在英语中,如果一个句子中出现两次同一个词.通常要换用代词来代替前面提到的事物.

the ones  those 代替复数名词

that 代替单数名词和不可数名词

 

[8.备注:主动变被动要加 to 的用法]

在主动语态中,使让动词(make , have , let)和感官动词(see , Look , watch , notice ,listen, hear , feel , find)后必省略 to ,但在被动语态中必须加上 to

:在教室里我们听见他唱了这首歌

we heard him sing this song in theclassroom.

he was heard to sing this song by us in theclassroom.

 

[9.强调句式的用法]

 It's ....that/who....构成, 中间的关系词必须是 that/who,没有其他词的可能性。

It's ....that/who....的强调句型只是为了强调某一成分,而不充当成分。所以它和 It作形式主语,真正的主语从句后置的情况有所不同。

请看以下 2 个例子就很容易分辨出 2 者不同。eg:

1.  It'snecessary that we should learn english.(主语从句)

2.  It'snot until he got off the bus that he realized she was the daughter ofheadmaster.(强调句型)

因为强调句型中的It's....that/who....在句子中不充当任何成分。所以去掉后句子依然完整。

例子 2 去掉 It's....that/who....后就成了

until he got off the bus he realized shewas the daughter of headmaster

而例子 1 去掉后句子则不完整。

 

[10.if  whether 的区别]

1if whether 都可以引导宾语从句,常常可以互换,表示“是否”。如:

I don’t know whether=ifI should tell him.

我不知道是否应该告诉他。

2)但两者也有微妙的差别,请注意 whether 可与 or not 连用,而 if 不可以

在句首时用 whether,而不用 if,在介词后用 whether,而不用 if,引导主语从句时用 whether,而不是if,引导同位语从句时用 whether 而不用 if 表示“如果”时用 if,而不用 whether。如:

I don’t know whether he will come or not.

我不知道他是否会来。

Whether you take part in or not the resultwill be the same.

你参不参加结果都是一样的。

It depends on whether he can solve theproblem.

那取决于他能否解决这个问题。

He can’t decide whether to visit her ornot.

他决定不出是否去看她。

Whether he will come is still a question.

他是否会来还是一个疑问。

3)例题分析。

1Only one of the books is ____ . ( NMET 86)

A. worth to read     B. worth being read

C. worth of reading     D. worth reading

此题答案为 DSth.作主语时,be worth 后应跟动名词,或 sth. be worthy of being done

2Rather than_____ on a crowded bus, he alwaysprefers ____ a bicycle.

A. ride; ride    B. riding; riding

C. ride; to ride   D.riding; to ride

此题答案为 C。句子为“宁愿干……而不愿干……”的常用句型。

此类句型还有 wouldrather do ……than do……  prefer doing sth. to doing sth.

3The chair looks rather hard, but in fact it’svery comfortable to _____.

A. sit   B. sit on   C. be sat   D. be sat on

此题答案为 B。句型为“主语 + be + adj. + to do”,常用不定式主动式代替被动式。如:

It was hard to choose.

很难决定啊。

若动词是不及物动词,要跟相应的介词,如:

The ice is hard enough to skate on.

这冰够硬,可以在上面滑冰。

 

[11. 辨析: but; except ; besides]

except prep....以外(在整体中除去一部分)

except+n./pron./介词短语/to do (有时 to 可以省略)

eg.We're succeed except Yang.除了杨之外我们都成功了.

I looked everywhere except in the bedroom.除了卧室我哪个地方都找了.

But  I. conj.

II. prep. [用于 no, nobody, nothing, all, who, where 等词后]...以外

eg. 除了 Jim 谁还会做这样的傻事?

Who but Jim would do such an foolish thing.

除了两把椅子外房间里什么也没有.

There's nothing but two chairs in the room.

等于 except, 但还有一些区别,but 着重整体且常用在

no,nobody,nothing,all,who,where 等次的后面.except 不受此限,却着重在除

去的那部分.

eg.The window is never opened except insummer. 那扇窗子除夏天外从不打开.

Except + to do  to 可以省略

eg. He did nothing except (to)work.他除了工作什么也不做.

but ; except ...以外 表示从整体减去部分时.可换用

We're all here but/except Mary.

besides prep. ...以外(还有...)

eg .除了他们都去以外还有 Tom 也去了.

They all went there besides Tom.

Except + 动词不定式时[当句中的谓语是 do 或动词 + to do 形式,宾语是anything,everything,nothing,不定式符号 to 可以省略]

eg.除了睡觉她什么也不想做.

She doesn't want to do anything except (to)sleep.

 

[12.辨析: little;a little;few;a few]

few 修饰复数名词",几乎没有"

a few 修饰复数名词"一些"

little 修饰不可数名词",几乎没有"

a little 修饰不可数名词"一点"

a little 还可以修饰 adj.eg.a little tired

 

[13. aloud/ loud / loudly 区别]

aloud/ loud / loudly

aloud  loud  loudly 都可以表示“大声地”,但在用法上有区别。

 aloud 强调发出的声音能被听见,意思为“出声地”或“大声地”,常用 read  call 等动词连用。例如:

Please read the text aloud.

请朗读一下课文。

 loud 意为“响亮地”、 “大声”或“高声地”,侧重发出的音量大,传得远,一般多用来修饰 speak talk laugh 等动词。 loud 还可用作形容词。例如:

Speak louder, please, or no one will hearyou.

请大声些,否则没人能听见。

 loudly 意为“响亮地”,其基本意义与 loud 相同,还常与 ring  knock 等动词连用。 loudly 放在动词前后均可,含有“喧闹”或“嘈杂”的意味。例如:

Suddenly the bell on the wall rang loudly.

突然,墙上的铃大声地响起来。

 

[14. 反意疑问句的 20 种特殊形式]

反意疑问句的 20 种特殊形式

1.陈述部分的主语是I'm...句型时,疑问部分要用 aren'tI。如:

I'm an English teacher, aren't I? 我是一名英语老师,不是吗?

2.陈述部分是感叹句时,疑问部分用 be +主语。如:

What beautiful hats, aren't they? 多么漂亮的帽子,不是吗?

3.陈述部分是省去主语的祈使句时,疑问部分用 will you。如:

Don't be late next time, will you? 下次不要迟到了,好吗?

Come here, will you / won't you? 到这儿来,好吗?

注意: Let's 开头的祈使句,疑问部分用 shall we Let us 开头的祈使句,疑问部分用 will you 如:

Let's start with the song, shall we? 咱们以这首歌开始,好吗?

Let us help you, will you? 让我帮助你,好吗?

4.陈述部分的谓语是 wish,疑问部分要用 may +主语。如:

I wish to go to Beijing, may I? 我希望去北京,好吗?

5.陈述部分

 no, nothing,nobody, never, few, seldom, hardly, rarely, little 等否定含义的词时,疑问部分用肯定含义。如:

They never go there, do they ? 他们从不去那儿,是吗?

6.含有 ought to 的反意疑问句,陈述部分是肯定的,疑问部分用shouldn't / oughtn't +主语。如:He ought to know what to do, oughtn't he? / shouldn't he? 他应该知道该做什么,对吗?

7.陈述部分有 have to+v. had to + v.),疑问部分常用 don't +主语,(didn't +主语)。如:

We have to sleep here, don't we? 我们必须睡在这儿,对吧。

8must 在表“推测”时,根据其推测的情况来确定反意疑问句。如:

He must be Tom, isn't he ? 他一定是汤姆,不是吗?

It must be going to rain tomorrow, won't it? 明天肯定要下雨, 是吗?

9.陈述部分的谓语是 usedto 时, 疑问部分用 didn't +主语或 usen't +主语。

如:He used to be a bad boy, didn't he ? / usen'the ? 他过去是个坏男孩,是吧?

10.陈述部分有 hadbetter + v.,疑问句部分用 hadn't you

如:You'd better go there now, hadn't you? 你最好现在去那儿,好吗?

11.陈述部分有 wouldrather +v.,疑问部分多用 wouldn't +主语。

如:He would rather read it ten times than reciteit, wouldn't he ? 他宁可读十遍也不愿意背诵,是吗?

12.陈述部分有 You'dlike to +v.,疑问部分用 wouldn't +主语。

如:You'd like to go tobed earlier, wouldn't you? 你想早点儿睡觉,对吗?

13.陈述部分有 must,疑问部分根据实际情况而定。

如:He must be a doctor, isn't he? 他肯定是医生,是吗?

You must have studied English for fouryears, haven't you? / didn't you? 你一定学了四年英语,对吗?

He must have finished it yesterday,didn't he? 他肯定是在昨天完成任务的,是吗?

14.陈述部分由 neither... nor, either... or 连接的并列主语时,疑问部分根据其实际逻辑意义而定。

如:Neither you nor I am a teacher, are we? 你不是老师,我也不是,对吗?

15.陈述部分主语是指示代词或不定代词

everything,that, nothing, this, 疑问部分主语用 it

如:Everything is ready, isn't it? 一切就绪,是吗?

16.陈述部分为主语从句或并列复合句,疑问部分有三种情况:

a并列复合句的疑问部分,谓语动词根据邻近从句的谓语而定。

如:Mr.Smith had been to Shanghai for several times, heshould have beeninChinanow, shouldn't he ? 史密斯先生曾几次去过上海,按理说他现在应该在中国,是吗?

b带有定语从句,宾语从句的主从复合句,疑问部分谓语根据主句的谓语而定。

如:Hesaid he wanted to visit Urumchi, didn't he? 他说他想去乌鲁木齐看看,他是那样说的吗?

c陈述部分主句为第一人称,谓语是think,believe, expect, suppose, imagine 等引导的宾语从句,疑问部分与宾语从句相对应构成反意疑问句。

如:Idon't think he is clever, is he ? 我认为他并不聪明,是吗?

We believe she can do it better, can'tshe? 我们相信她能做得更好,她不能吗?

17.陈述部分主语是不定代词 everybody, anyone, somebody, nobody, no one等,疑问部分常用复数they,有时也用单数 he

如:Everyone knows the answer, don't they?/doesn't he? 人人都知道答案,是这样吧?

Nobody knowsabout it, do they? / does he? 没人知道这件事,是吧?

18. 带情态动词 dare  need 的反意疑问句,疑问部分常用 need /dare+主语。

如:We need not do it again, need we ? 我们不必重做一遍,是吗?

He dare not say so, dare he? 他不敢这样说,是吗?

 dare, need 为实义动词时,疑问部分用助动词 do + 主语。

如:She doesn't dare to go home alone, doesshe? 她不敢独自回家,是吗?

19.陈述部分是“there be”结构的,疑问部分用 there 省略主语代词。

如:There is something wrong with your watch,isn't there? 你的表有问题,对不对?

There will not be any trouble, willthere? 不会有麻烦吧,是吗?

20.否定前缀不能视为否定词,其反意疑问句仍用否定形式。

如:It is impossible, isn't it? 这不可能,不是吗?

He is not unkind to his classmates, ishe? 他不会对他同学使坏,是吗?

 

[15.动词不定式用法]

1)作主语,可以用 it 代替,it 叫形式主语,动词不定式放在后面叫真正主语

1To learn a foreignlanguage is not easy.

It is not easy to learn a foreignlanguage.

2.  It’s dangerous to drive very fast.

2)作表语

My idea is to ring him up at once. 我的想法是马上给他打电话。

如果主语部分含实义动词 do,且作表语的动词又是“do”的内容,这时表语不定式的“to”可以省略。如:All I did was wait here. 我能做的就是在这里等。

3)常可接动词不定式作宾语的动词有:agree (同意), hope (希望),decide (

),need (需要), mean (打算), wish (希望),fail (失败), want (想要), begin (开始),would like (想要)等。

He has decided to go to the countryside. 他已决心去乡下。

4)“疑问词 + 动词不定式”结构可以作动词 knowthinkfindout 等的宾语。

I dont know who to ask. 我真不知道该问谁。

5)“疑问词 + 动词不定式”可以作动词 show teachask 等后面的直接宾语。

She told me where to find the earphone. 她告诉我什么地方可以找到耳机。

6)如果宾语太长,可用 it 作形式宾语,构成“主语 + 谓语 + it + 宾语补足语(名词或形容词) + to do sth”结构,谓语动词常为 findthinkfeel 等。

I found it difficult to stop him. 我发现拦截他很困难。

7)动词不定式可以作介词的宾语。

Autumn harvest is about to start. 秋收即将开始。

Im worrying aboutwhat to do next. 我正愁下一步该怎么办。

8)作定语的动词不定式与被修饰词有动宾关系。

I have a lot of books to read. 我有许多书要读。

此时,如果动词不定式动词为不及物动词,后面的介词绝对不能省略。

We had only a cold room to live in. 我们只有寒室一间。

9)作定语的动词不定式与被修饰词有主谓关系。

He is always the first to come and thelast to leave. 他总是第一个到,最后一个走。

10)作定语的动词不定式与被修饰词之间只有修饰关系。

We have no time to go to town today. 今天我们没有时间去城里。

11)作状语的动词不定式常表示目的、原因、方向、结果等。

I’m glad to meet you. 见到你,我很高兴。

They ran over to welcome the foreignguests. 他们跑过来欢迎外宾。

12)不定式复合结构“for sb to do sth”可用作主语、表语、定语、状语等。

It’s for her to decide. 这得由她来决定。(表语)

There are many books for you to read. 这有许多书供你阅读。(定语)

The book ids too difficult for childrento read. 这本书太难了,孩子们看不懂。(结果状语)

不定式复合结构作主语时,需注意:

Its + 形容词 + for / of + sb + to do sth.

当上面的形容词指的是 to do sth 的性质时,用介词 for

Its dangerous forchildren to swim in the river. 孩子在这条河里游泳很危险。(游泳这件事情危险)

当上面的形容词指的是 sb 的性质时,用介词 of。这些形容词往往修饰人:good,bad, polite, unkind, kind, nice, clever, right, wrong, careful, careless.

It was careless of you to do that. 你这么做真粗心。(你这个人粗心)

13)动词 hear, see, feel, watch, notice, look at, listen to 等后面的

动词不定式作宾语补足语时不能带 to, 即常见的形式为: hear sb do sth 

Many people like to watch others playgames. 许多人喜欢看别人玩游戏。

14let,make, have 后面的动词不定式作宾语补足语也不能带 to; help后面的动词不定式作宾语补足语,to 可有可无。

She let us meet her at the station, butshe didnt come. 她让我们去车站迎接她,可她没有来。

15)十三和十四这两种情况下的动词不定式在改被动语态句子时,必须将省略的 to 还原,也就是说,动词后需跟带 to 的动词不定式。

We heard him sing every day.

He was heard to sing every day. 那时每天都听到他唱歌。

16)跟带 to 的动词不定式作宾语补足语的动词还有: ask, beg, leave, like, love, hate,prefer, order, teach, tell, blieve, find, know, want, think, understand, wouldlike 等形式为: ask sb to do sth

Would you like me to visit him? 要不要我拜访他?

I would preferyou not to come tomorrow. 我宁愿你明天不要来。

He ask the driver to stop the motobike. 他要那位司机拦下那辆摩托车。

17)区别下列词组的不同含义:

liketo do sth / like doing sth

stopto do sth / stop doing sth

rememberto do sth / remember doing sth

forgetto do sth / forget doing sth。



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