高中英语知识点总结(七)

发布时间:2018-05-16 12:10





[39. take 的用法]

take 可作及物动词和不及物动词,主要有以下用法:


一、take 作拿,拿走,带去讲。如:

Please take the tea-things away. 

请把茶具拿走。

You'd better take your umbrella along. 

你最好把雨伞带着。


二、take 作"吃(喝),乘坐,接受" 讲。如:

She asked us to take tea with her. 

她请我们和她一起喝茶。

We are waiting to take the plane to Yan'an. 

我们在等着乘飞机去延安。

I'm very glad that you've taken their advice. 

我很高兴你接受了他们的建议。


三、take 作"测量,照(相),记录"讲。如:

The doctor took my temperature. 

医生量了我的体温。

We took photos on the Great Wall.

我们在长城上照了相。


四、take 作"花费,需要"讲。如:

It takes many hands to do the work. 

这项工作需要许多人去做。


五、take + n. 构成的词组:

take effect 生效,发生作用;

take aim 瞄准;

take care 当心,注意;

take office 就职; 

take trouble 费事;

take notes 作笔记;

take pains 费力;

take place 发生;

take heart 鼓起勇气。

如:

These measures are just beginning to take effect. 

这些措施刚开始见效。

The player knelt down to take aim. 

这位选手跪下来瞄准。

Take care that you don't slip. 

当心别滑倒了。

Take notes, summarise and help the speaker decide. 

作笔记,总结一下,然后帮助发言者作决定。

He took office at a most difficult time. 

他是在极其困难的时候就职的。


六、take + adv. prep. 构成的词组:

take away 拿走,拿开;

take back 收回;

take down 拆开,记下;

take in 欺骗,领会,包括,容纳;

take off 起飞,成名,脱掉;

take on 呈现,接纳;

take out 取出,拔出;

take up 学习,占去,从事,接纳;

take over 接收,接管;

take to 喜欢。 

如:

I should take back what I said. 

我应该收回我说的话。

She was taken in at the railway station. 

在火车站她被骗了。

Take off your wet shoes and come in. 

脱掉湿鞋进来吧。

The plane took off at 8 a.m. 

飞机是早晨 8 点起飞的。

The tour takes in some famous old castles. 

这趟观光旅游包括若干著名的古堡。


七、take + n. + 介词构成的词组:

take account of 考虑;

take advantage of 利用;

take care of 照顾,照管;

take charge of 负责,管理;

take hold of 抓住;

take notice of 注意;

take part in 参加;

take pride in 为......感到骄傲; 

take delight in 乐于; 

take interest in 对......感兴趣; 

take pity on 同情。

如:

She soon took charge of the work. 

她很快就负责这项工作了。

She took hold of the little tree. 

她抓住了小树。

Take particular notice of that man. 

要特别注意那个人。

He took part in the contest last month. 

上个月他参加了竞赛。


[40. 情态动词的用法]

一、情态动词的语法特征

1. 情态动词不能表示正在发生或已经发生的事情,只表示期待或估计某事的发生。

2. 情态动词 除 ought 和 have 外,后面只能接不带 to 的不定式。

3. 情态动词没有人称,数的变化,即情态动词第三人称单数不加-s。

4. 情态动词没有非谓语形式,即没有不定式,分词等形式。


二、比较 can 和 be able to

1. can could 表示能力,可能 (过去时用 could), 只用于现在式和过去式(could)。be able to 可以用于各种时态。

They will be able to tell you the news soon. 他很快就能告诉你消息了。


2. 只用 be able to的情况。

a. 位于助动词后。

b. 情态动词后。

c. 表示过去某时刻动作时。

d. 用于句首表示条件。

e. 表示成功地做了某事时,只能用 was/were able to, 不能用 could。

He was able to flee Europe before the war broke out.

= He managed to flee Europe before the war broke out.


注意:could 不表示时态

1. 提出委婉的请求(注意在回答中不可用 could)。如:

Could I have the television on?--- Yes, you can. / No, you can't.

2. 在否定,疑问句中表示推测或怀疑。如:

He couldn't be a bad man. 他不大可能是坏人。


三、 比较 may 和 might

1. 表示允许或请求,表示没有把握的推测,may 放在句首,表示祝愿。如:

May God bless you! He might be at home.

注意: might 表示推测时,不表示时态。只是可能性比 may 小。

2.  成语: may/might as well,后面接不带 to 的不定式,意为"不妨"。如:

If that is the case, we may as well try.

典型例题:Peter ___come with us tonight, but he isn't very sure yet.

A. must   B. may   C. can   D. will

答案 B. 表可能性只能用 may.


四、比较 have to 和 must

1) 两词都是'必须'的意思。have to 表示客观的需要,must 表示说话人主观上的看法,既主观上的必要。

如:

My brother was very ill, so I had to call the doctor in the middle of the night. 

我弟弟病得很厉害,我只得半夜里把医生请来。(客观上需要做这件事)

He said that they must work hard. 

他说他们必须努力工作。(主观上要做这件事)


2) have to 有人称、数、时态的变化,而 must 只有一种形式。但 must 可用于间接引语中表示过去的必要或义务。

如:

He had to look after his sister yesterday.


3) 在否定结构中, don't have to 表示"不必",mustn't 表示"禁止"。

如:

You don't have to tell him about it. 

你不一定要把此事告诉他。

You mustn't tell him about it. 

你一定不要把这件事告诉他。


五、must 表示推测

1) must 用在肯定句中表示较有把握的推测,意为"一定"。

2) must 表对现在的状态或现在正发生的事情的推测时, must 后面通常接系动词 be 的原形或行为动词的进行式。

如:

You have worked hard all day.You must be tired. 

你辛苦干一整天,一定累了。(对现在情况的推测判断)

He must be working in his office. 他一定在办公室工作呢。

比较:He must be staying there. 他现在肯定呆在那里。/  He must stay there. 他必须呆在那。

3) must 表示对已发生的事情的推测时,must 要接完成式。如:

I didn't hear the phone. I must have been asleep. 我刚才没有听到电话,我想必是睡着了。

4) must 表示对过去某时正发生的事情的推测,must 后面要接不定式的完成进行式。如:

Why didn't you answer my phone call?

Well, I must have been sleeping, so I didn't hear it.

5) 否定推测用 can't。

If Tom didn't leave here until five o'clock, he can't be home yet.

如果汤姆五点才离开这儿,他此时一定还未到家。


六、 表示推测的用法: can, could, may, might, must 皆可表示推测,其用法如下:

1) 情态动词+动词原形,表示对现在或将来的情况的推测,此时动词通常为系动词。如:

I don't know where she is, she may be in Wuhan.

2) 情态动词+动词现在进行时,表示对现在或将来正在进行的情况进行推测。如:

At this moment, our teacher must be correcting our exam papers.

这时,我们老师想必在批改试卷。

3) 情态动词+动词完成时,表示对过去情况的推测。如:

We would have finished this work by the end of next December.

明年十二月底前我们很可能已完成这项工作了。

The road is wet. It must have rained last night.

地是湿的,昨天晚上一定下雨了。

4) 情态动词+动词的现在完成进行时,表示对过去正在发生事情的推测。如:

Your mother must have been looking for you.

你妈妈一定一直在找你。

5) 推测的否定形式,疑问形式用 can't, couldn't 表示。如:

Mike can't have found his car, for he came to work by bus this morning.

迈克一定还没有找回他的车,因为早上他是坐公共汽车来上班的。

注意:could, might 表示推测时不表示时态,其推测的程度不如 can, may。


七、 情态动词+ have +过去分词

1) may(might) have + done sth, can (could) have + done sth 表示过去,推测过去时间里可能发生的事情。如:

Philip may (might) have been hurt seriously in the car accident.

Philip can (could) have been hurt seriously in the car accident.

2) must have +done sth,对过去时间里可能发生的事情的推测,语气较强,具有"肯定","谅必"的意思。如:

Linda has gone to work, but her bicycle is still here.

She must have gone by bus.





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